Friday, April 16, 2010



An inspiration for the founding of American University was a letter written by George Washington in which he expressed a desire for a "national university" to be located in the nation's capital. The university was established in the District of Columbia by an Act of Congress on February 24, 1893, primarily due to the efforts of Methodist Bishop John Fletcher Hurst. It, like most of the universities in the District of Columbia (Georgetown University, The George Washington University, Howard University, Gallaudet University, and The Catholic University of America,among others), was chartered by an act of Congress, and thus has the seal of Congress appear on its diplomas. Bishop Hurst and his colleagues were concerned with building an institution that would meld the strengths of the best German universities with the strengths of the existing university system in America. As their plans developed during the early years, they began to conceive of American University as an institution that would be:

* A privately supported university financed principally by the membership of the churches, particularly the Methodist Episcopal Church, which had been the founders of many of the colleges and universities in the early years of American history.
* An internationally minded institution where scholars from across the nation and from throughout the world would gather to dedicate their combined efforts to the advancement and dissemination of knowledge.
* A center of higher education and research activities that, while independent of the government, would draw freely on the intellectual and scientific resources of the Nation's Capital to supplement and to extend its own capabilities.
* An institution that would contribute to the general cultural life and development of the capital in much the same manner that state-supported universities in other world capitals contributed to their communities.


After more than three decades devoted principally to securing financial support, the university was officially dedicated on May 15, 1914. The first instruction began on October 6 of that year, when 28 students were enrolled (19 of them graduate students, nine of them special students who were not candidates for a degree). The First Commencement, at which no degrees were awarded, was held on June 2, 1915. The Second Annual Commencement was held on June 2, 1916 where the first degrees (one master's degree and two doctor's degrees) were awarded.Shortly after these early commencement ceremonies, classes were interrupted by war. During World War I, the university allowed the U.S. military to use some of its grounds for testing. In 1917, the U.S. military divided American University into two segments, Camp American University and Camp Leach. Camp American University became the birthplace of the United States' chemical weapons program, and chemical weapons were tested on the grounds; this required a major cleanup effort in the 1990s. Camp Leach was home to advanced research, development and testing of modern camouflage techniques. As of 2007, the Army Corps of Engineers is still removing ordnance including mustard gas and mortar shells.

During the next ten years, instruction was offered at the graduate level only, in accordance with the original plan of the founders. In the fall of 1925, the College of Liberal Arts (subsequently named the College of Arts and Sciences) was established. Since that date, the University has offered both undergraduate and graduate degrees and programs. In 1934, the School of Public Affairs was foundedDuring World War II, the campus again offered its services to the U.S. government and became home to the U.S. Navy Bomb Disposal School and a WAVE barracks. For AU's role in these wartime efforts, the Victory ship SS American Victory was named in honor of the university.


The present structure of the university began to emerge in 1949. The Washington College of Law became part of the University in that year, having begun in 1896 as the first coeducational institution for the professional study of law in the District of Columbia. Shortly thereafter, three departments were reorganized as schools: the School of Business Administration in 1955 (subsequently named the Robert P. and Arlene R. Kogod College of Business Administration and in 1999 renamed the Kogod School of Business); the School of Government and Public Administration in 1957; and the School of International Service in 1958.

In the early 1960s, the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency operated a think tank under the guise of Operation Camelot at American University. The government abandoned the think tank after the operation came to public attention. AU's political intertwinement was furthered by President John F. Kennedy's Spring 1963 commencement address.In the speech, Kennedy called on the Soviet Union to work with the United States to achieve a nuclear test ban treaty and help reduce the considerable international tensions and the specter of nuclear war during that juncture of the Cold War.

From 1965 to 1977, the College of Continuing Education existed as a degree-granting college with responsibility for on- and off-campus adult education programs. The Lucy Webb Hayes School of Nursing provided undergraduate study in Nursing from 1965 until 1988. In 1972, the School of Government and Public Administration, the School of International Service, the Center for Technology and Administration, and the Center for the Administration of Justice (subsequently named the School of Justice) were incorporated into the College of Public and International Affairs.

In October 1984, President Richard Berendzen announced that the University would purchase the Immaculata Campus in 1986 to help alleviate space problems. This investment would later become the Tenley Campus.

In 1986, construction on the Adnan Khashoggi Sports and Convocation Center began. Financed with $5 million from and named for Saudi Arabian Trustee Adnan Khashoggi, the building was intended to update athletics facilities and provide a new arena, as well as a parking garage and office space for administrative services. Costing an estimated $19 million, the building represented the largest construction project to date, but met protest by both faculty and students to the University's use of Khashoggi's name on the building due to his involvement in international arms trade.

In 1988, the College of Public and International Affairs was reorganized to create two free-standing schools: the School of International Service and the School of Public Affairs, incorporating the School of Government and Public Administration and the School of Justice. That same year, construction on the Adnan Khashoggi Sports Center completed while the Iran-Contra Affair controversy was at its height although his name was not removed from the building until after Khashoggi defaulted on his donation obligation in the mid to late 90's.


In 1991, Richard E. Berendzen stepped down as President after admitting to making obscene phone calls. He sought immediate medical treatment and remained a full-time member of the American University faculty until his retirement in 2006.
Berendzen was succeeded by Joseph Duffy, who left after one year to become the head of the United States Information Agency under President Clinton.

The School of Communication became independent from the College of Arts and Sciences in 1993.

In 1997 American University of Sharjah, the only coeducational, liberal arts university in the United Arab Emirates, signed a two year contract with AU to provide academic management, a contract which has since been extended multiple times through August 2009. A team of senior AU administrators relocated to Sharjah to assist in the establishment of the university and guide it through the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools accreditation process.

In 2003, American launched the largest fund raising campaign in its history. The program, ANewAU, has a goal of raising $200 million dollars. As of October, 2009, the University has raised $189.6 million dollars. When the campaign is completed, the University's website states that it "will help to attract and retain the finest faculty, increase scholarship support, create and endow research and policy centers, ensure state-of-the-art resources in all of our schools and colleges, expand global programs, and secure the long-term financial health of the university by boosting the endowment."

In the fall of 2005, the much anticipated Katzen Arts Center opened.

Benjamin Ladner was suspended from his position as president of the university on August 24, 2005, pending an investigation into possible misuse of university funds for his personal expenses. University faculty passed votes of no confidence in President Ladner on September 26 . On October 10, 2005, the Board of Trustees of American University decided that Ladner would not return to American University as its president.Dr. Cornelius M. Kerwin, a long-time AU administrator, served as interim president and was appointed to the position permanently on September 1, 2007, after two outsiders declined an offer from the Board of Trustees.. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, Ladner received a total compensation of $4,270,665 in his final year of service, the second highest of any university president in the United States.

Ground was broken for the new School of International Service building on November 14, 2007. A speech was given by Senator Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI). Construction began in early April 2008, and is expected to last for two years.




American University (AU) is a private United Methodist-affiliated research university in Washington, D.C. The main campus is located at the intersection of Nebraska and Massachusetts Avenues at Ward Circle, straddling the Spring Valley, Wesley Heights, and American University Park neighborhoods of Northwest. Roughly 6,000 undergraduate students and 3,912 graduate students are currently enrolled. Though there is sometimes confusion, American University is separate from most "American Universities" around the world.

It is served by the Tenleytown-AU station on the Washington Metro subway line, which is located roughly one mile from the main campus in the neighborhood of Tenleytown. AU is a member of the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area, allowing students to enroll in courses offered by other member institutions and students at other member institutions to enroll in courses at AU. A member of the Division I Patriot League, its sports teams compete as the American University Eagles.


Friday, April 9, 2010


The University of Phoenix (UPX) is a private for-profit institution of higher learning. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc. which is publicly traded on NASDAQ (APOL) a S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona.

As the university with the largest student body in North America, it has a current enrollment of 420,700 undergraduate students and 78,000 graduate students,or 224,880 full-time equivalent students.

The university has more than 200 campuses worldwide and confers degrees in over 100 degree programs at the associate's, bachelor's, master's and doctoral levels.
University of Phoenix has an open enrollment admission policy, which only requires proof of a high-school diploma, GED, or its equivalent.[ school also provides associate's or bachelor's degree applicants opportunity for advanced placement through its Prior Learning Assessment, which, aside from previous coursework, college credit can come from experiential learning essays, corporate training, and certificates or Licenses


In the early 1970s, at San José State University in California, John Sperling and several associates conducted field-based research in adult education. The focus of the research was to explore teaching/learning systems for the delivery of educational programs and services to working adult students who wished to complete or further their education in ways that took into consideration both their experience and current professional responsibilities. At that time, colleges and universities were organized primarily around serving the needs of the 18- to 22-year-old undergraduate student—given that the large majority of those enrolled were residential students of traditional college age, just out of high school. “According to Sperling, working adult students were often invisible on traditional campuses and treated as second-class citizens.” John Sperling once stated that the University of Phoenix was, "a corporation, not a social entity. Coming here is not a rite of passage. We are not trying to develop . . . [students'] value systems or go in for that 'expand their minds'."

The first class consisted of only eight students. Sperling founded the university in 1976 in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1980, the school expanded to San Jose, California. By 1989, the university was among the first providing an online program for students.

University of Phoenix is a wholly owned subsidiary of Apollo Group Inc., is publicly traded on NASDAQ: APOL, and is a S&P 500 corporation based in Phoenix, Arizona. The school was the top recipient of student financial aid funds for the 2008 fiscal year, receiving nearly $2.48 billion for students enrolled. In 2006, due largely to the efforts attributed to the Apollo group, the 50-percent rule (requiring colleges and universities to conduct at least half of its instruction in person in order to receive federal aid or collect federal student loans) was modified. It no longer classifies students receiving instruction through telecommunications methods as correspondence students. As such, these students now qualify for federal student aid. The Department of Education requires that this method must include a significant amount of interactivity to prevent correspondence programs from skirting the rule by using minor e-mails or just posting course materials such as syllabi on its Web sites.

In May 2008, the school announced the formation of the University of Phoenix National Research Center. It is designed to study which teaching methods work best for nontraditional students. The development of the research center is under advisement by a board composed of a former dean of education at the University of Virginia; a consultant on learning; and a former official with the College Board, president of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.

The University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona, is a municipal sports arena, best known as the home of the NFL's Arizona Cardinals and the site of the NCAA's Tostitos Fiesta Bowl. The University paid $154.5 million for 20-year naming rights for advertising purposes, although does not itself participate in intercollegiate sports. Instead of heavy spending on a sports program to increase name recognition, it simply linked its name to sports by buying the naming rights of a football stadium.

The University of Phoenix abbreviates its name as UOPX

Campuses and online services

The university has campuses and learning centers in 40 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico, Chile, and the Netherlands. While the school specializes in online programs, the campuses offer additional programs and services. Online students are also able to utilize tutoring/social centers, which can also be used for social and student learning interactions. The first center opened in 2007 in Plano, Tex. Students have access to class-specific online resources, which include an electronic library, textbooks, and other ancillary material required for a course. The university says that the electronic textbooks include search features and hyperlinks to glossary terms that make the books easier to use when working on research papers and other documents.

Through its online portal, or eCampus, University of Phoenix students also have access to software required for coursework. Available, for example, are virtual companies created by the university to provide students with assignments, which Adam Honea, UOPX's dean and provost, claims are more realistic than those available with case studies.

In 2009, the University of Phoenix was ranked #28 in the world for online degree programs by OEDb

Academic profile

The university offers several different programs of study, all administered through four colleges—the John Sperling School of Business and Technology, the Artemis School (administering art, education, and health fields), the School of Advanced Studies (overseeing doctoral programs), and Axia College (managing associate's degrees). In addition to its traditional education programs, the school offers continuing education courses for teachers and practitioners, professional development courses for companies, and specialized courses of study for military personnel.

Students spend 20 to 24 hours with an instructor during each course, compared with about 40 hours at a traditional university. The university also requires students to teach one another by working on projects for four or five hours per week in what it calls learning teams, wherein students engage classmates in course-material discussions. Some academicians and former students feel the abbreviated courses and the use of learning teams results in an inferior education. The course schedule may be more convenient for professionals who can log on anytime.


2010 US News ranked the school as Unranked.

2009 Online Education Database ranked the school 28 out of 44 for best accredited Online Universities.


The University of Phoenix was regionally accredited in 1978 by The Higher Learning Commission (HLC) as a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). It also has accreditation for a variety of its specialty degree programs, including the following:

Nursing Accreditation—The B.S. in Nursing and the M.S. in Nursing degree programs are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). The CCNE is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation.

Business Accreditation—All business programs from the Associate to the Doctoral levels have specialty accreditation through the Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). Only the ACBSP and AACSB are recognized by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) for accreditation of business schools. Some companies (including the Intel Corporation, which eliminated tuition reimbursement for employees attending non-AACSB accredited schools) and academics have concerns that UOPX's business program is not accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). John J. Fernandes, the AACSB's president, said the University of Phoenix has never applied for membership because he feels it knows its chances of accreditation through AACSB due to UOPX's come-and-go faculty. Only 42 percent of business schools in the United States possess external specialty accreditation. There are three principal accrediting agencies for business programs: AACSB, which is recognized by the CHEA and is a research and excellence in instruction oriented accreditation; ACBSP, which is also recognized by CHEA and is a more business-oriented accreditation; and IABSP. These three accreditations represent the majority of specialty business accreditation. A perception survey shows greater prestige associated with AACSB accreditation, which accredits less than 25% of all business schools in the United States, especially in academia, although research shows clear benefits from typical schools from each of the three accreditation standards. A May 2000 benchmarking study commissioned by the AACSB and the American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC) in Houston, Texas, identified the University of Phoenix, along with Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business, Ohio University’s MBA Without Boundaries Program, UCLA’s Anderson Graduate School of Management, and Wake Forest University as engaging in exemplary practices with regard to their Technology Mediated Learning (TML) programs. The programs were evaluated on the dimensions of organizational practices, learning practices, teaching practices, and approaches to assessment of TML outcomes.

Teacher Education Accreditation—The M.A. in Education degree program is pre-accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council (TEAC) for a period of five years, from December 20, 2007, to December 20, 2012.The TEAC is recognized by the U.S. Department of Education and the CHEA.

Counseling Accreditation—The M.S. in Counseling degree program in Community Counseling and the M.S. in Counseling degree program in Mental Health Counseling are accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP). The CACREP is recognized by the CHEA.


The 2008 UPX Academic Report shows a diverse student and faculty makeup. According to demographic information in the report, on average, the student/faculty population is more diverse than the national average for higher education institutions. African-Americans make up more than 15% of the university's 22,000 faculty members, with about 6% as Latino. The national average in recent years showed about 5% as African-American with about 3% as Latino. The student population is approximately 25% African-American and almost 13% Latino. This is as compared to national statistics from recent years, showing 12% African-American populations and 10% Latino populations nationally.The university graduates a larger number of underrepresented students with Master's degrees in business, health care, and education than any other U.S. School. It is also ranked as the highest in graduating African American and Native American students with Master's degrees for all other disciplines. The underlying data for these conclusions was provided by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for the 2005–2006 academic year. The University of Phoenix was recently named one of the nation's top 20 institutions of higher education favorable to military personnel according to the December 2008 issue of Military Advanced Education. Nearly 29,000 active-duty military, their spouses, and veterans were enrolled in University of Phoenix degree programs at that time with more than 7,200 military members or veterans graduated from the University during that year.

Students and graduation rates

The average age of a University of Phoenix student is between 33 (undergraduate) and 36 (graduate), and most students have work-related commitments. The University states that nearly two-thirds of its students are women and that plurality of students attending the school study business (undergraduate students representing 29.9% and graduate students 12.9%), followed closely by those enrolled in Axia College for Associate's degrees (28.1%).

When calculated by the federal standard used by the Department of Education, UOPX's overall graduation rate is 16%, which, when compared to the national average of 55%, is among the nation's lowest. The federal standard measures graduation rates as the percentage of first-time undergraduates who obtain a degree within six years. The number is significantly lower at its Southern California campus (6%) and its online programs (4%). University of Phoenix acknowledges the 16% graduation rate but takes exception to the Federal standard used to calculate the rate, noting that the rate is based upon criteria that includes only 7% of UOPX's student population.The institution publishes its own nonstandard graduation rate of 59% to account for its large population of non-traditional students.


The University states that its faculty consists of approximately 1,500 core faculty and 20,000 associate faculty members and that all have Master's or Doctorate degrees. UOPX's reliance on part-time faculty—95 percent of Phoenix instructors teach part time, compared to an average of 47 percent nationwide—has been criticized by regulators and academic critics. UOPX's instructors describe themselves as delivering course material, since most of the classes are centrally crafted and standardized across teachers in order to ensure consistency and reduce costs for the school. Additionally, faculty members do not get tenure.According to a University of Phoenix officer, pre-screened instructional candidates participate in a training program in the discipline in which they teach, which he states has the effect of weeding out 40%–50% of the less committed or capable applicants.


Alumni of UOPX include U.S. Navy Admiral Kirkland H. Donald, current White House cybersecurity coordinator Howard Schmidt, former U.S. Secretary of Transportation Mary Peters '94, four-time NBA Championship-winner Shaquille O’Neal '05, and three-time WNBA MVP Lisa Leslie.


The University of Phoenix has been the subject of legal and regulatory controversies as a result of its student recruitment practices and accelerated academic schedule. There has also been concern expressed by former students, employees, and academics that in its quest for higher profits, the university has compromised academic quality.
“ Its reputation is fraying as prominent educators, students and some of its own former administrators say the relentless pressure for higher profits, at a university that gets more federal student financial aid than any other, has eroded academic quality. ”

The student-led learning teams that abbreviate class schedules and substitute for direct instruction time, the use of part-time faculty, high-pressure sales techniques, coupled with minimal acceptance standards to degree programs and low graduation rates as measured by Department of Education standards are some of the sources of this perception.

There is concern that its quality of education is too basic is echoed by its collegiate peers.
“ '[Its] business degree is an M.B.A. Lite,' said Henry M. Levin, a professor of higher education at Teachers College at Columbia University. “I’ve looked at [its] course materials. It’s a very low level of instruction.” ”

An instructor at the university explained that he could only cover a fraction of the syllabus because he said that the university required him to cram too much information into too few sessions.

Legal and regulatory actions

In 2009, the U.S. Department of Education provided a preliminary report to the university that cited untimely return of unearned Title IV funds for more than 10 percent of sampled students. The report also expressed a concern that some students enroll and begin attending classes before completely understanding the implications of enrollment, including their eligibility for student financial aid. As a result, in January 2010, its parent company, Apollo Group Inc., was required to post a letter of credit for $125 million by January 30 of the same year.

A 2003 federal whistle-blower/false-claims lawsuit filed by two former UOPX admission counselors alleged that the university improperly obtained hundreds of millions of dollars in financial aid by paying its admission counselors solely based on the number of students they enrolled in violation of the Higher Education Act.The school counters that the lawsuit is a legal manipulation by two former university employees over a matter previously resolved with the U.S. Department of Education, however the Department does not share that view. UOPX's position was rejected by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in its 2006 published opinion, which reversed the Eastern California U.S. District Court's 2004 decision dismissing the lawsuit. The lawsuit was set for trial on March 9, 2010. In December 2009, Apollo agreed to settle the dispute by paying the United States $67.5 million, without acknowledging any wrongdoing. In addition, Apollo will pay the plaintiff's attorneys $11 million.

In 2004, as a result of the filing of the false-claims lawsuit, the Department of Education performed a program review and alleged that UOPX had violated Higher Education Act provisions that prohibit distributing financial incentives to admission representatives, had pressured its recruiters to enroll students, and had concealed the practices from the Department.[69] UOPX disputed the findings but paid a record $9.8 million dollar fine as part of a settlement where it admitted no wrongdoing and was not required to return any financial aid funds. UOPX's President states that though recruiters are paid a commission based on the number of students enrolled, their compensation is not based solely on that criteria, which makes the practice legal.

In January 2008, the university’s parent company, Apollo Group Inc., was found guilty of misleading stockholders when it withheld the results of the 2004 Program Review cited above. A jury awarded $280 million to shareholders. However, U.S. District Judge James Teilborg overturned the verdict in August 2008, ruling that though UOPX misled the market, investors failed to prove that they were damaged by UOPX's actions. The plaintiffs have appealed the judges decision.

In 2000, government auditors found UOPX did not meet conditions for including study-group meetings as instructional hours, thus its courses fell short of the minimum time required for federal aid programs. The university paid a $6 million fine as part of a settlement wherein it admitted no wrongdoing. However, in 2002, the Department of Education relaxed requirements covering instructional hours.

The U.S. Department of Education ordered the university to pay $650,000 for failing to promptly refund loans and grants for students who withdrew.

In December 2008, three former University of Phoenix students filed a class-action complaint against UOPX, alleging that when the students withdrew, UOPX returned their entire loan money to the lender and then sought repayment from them. The alleged motivation was to "artificially deflate the cohort default rates", which impact a school's eligibility to receive Title IV funding. Apollo asserts that the students claim is that Apollo "improperly returned the entire amount of the students' federal loan funds to the lender." On January 21, 2009, plaintiffs voluntarily dismissed the lawsuit without prejudice to refiling. That suit was refiled in the Central District of California and is currently pending (Case No. 2:09cv00904-Judge Valerie Baker Fairbank).

The university has had various labor and discrimination issues. It paid $3.5 million to settle alleged violation of overtime compensation provision with the Department of Labor.In November 2008 it agreed to pay $1.89 million to settle allegations by the EEOC for alleged religious discrimination favoring Mormon enrollment counselors.[87] In settling these matters, University of Phoenix did not admit any liability or wrongdoing.




Troy University is a public university located in Troy, Alabama and founded in 1887 as Troy Normal School with a mission to educate and train new teachers. Troy has since evolved into a comprehensive state university. The main campus enrollment as of the fall of 2007 is 6,177 students. The campus itself consists of 36 major buildings on 650 acres (1.9 km²) plus the adjacent Troy University Arboretum. The Troy University system consists of 60 sites in 17 U.S. states and 11 other countries. The Troy University System includes three other campuses in the state of Alabama in Dothan, Montgomery, and Phenix City. The university also has a very large off-campus/distance learning program and offers many courses in conjunction with the United States Armed Forces.


The Princeton Review recognizes Troy University as "One of the Best in the Southeast". It can boast the 63rd best graduate school, and is ranked among the top in many other categories. In 2008, Troy University was ranked as the 25th best university in the United States for international students by the Institute of International Education. Troy University's main campus offers several degrees that are unique or are offered by a select few colleges and universities, including a masters level degree in Health Care Administration, Human Resource Management, and a bachelor of science degree program in deaf-interpreting, while Troy's teaching site in Atlanta, Georgia, offers one of the few certification programs in polygraph science in the country and the only program of its kind affiliated with a public, four-year institution of higher learning in the United States. In December 2007, the Alabama Commission on Higher Education gave Troy University the approval to begin the university's first doctoral program: the Doctorate in Nursing Practice. The Troy University Montgomery campus located in downtown Montgomery is home to the award-winning Rosa Parks Library and Museum. Troy's broadcast journalism program has a sterling reputation and the university's student-led television news broadcast took home the Southeast's top spot at the most recent 2007/2008 awards banquet at the University of Mississippi.

Name Change

On April 16, 2004, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution from Troy State University to Troy University. The transition to the new name was completed in August 2005 concurrent with the merger of all the associated satellite campuses into a single, unified system and administration. Trustees said they believe the name change allows the university system to reflect its quality, funding sources and global mission better. The name change was the fifth in the school's history. When created by the Alabama Legislature on February 26, 1887, it was officially named the Troy State Normal School. The school was located in downtown Troy until moving to the present location in 1930. In 1929, the name was changed to Troy State Teachers College and it subsequently conferred its first baccalaureate degree in 1931. In 1957, the legislature voted both to change the name to Troy State College and to allow it to begin a master's degree program. The name was changed once again in 1967 to Troy State University.

In May 2008, the university began the silent phase of a comprehensive capital campaign called "Building Beyond Boundaries" that will target massive fund raising efforts encompassing all areas of the university.

Fraternities and Sororities

There are currently nine sororities at Troy University. Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Sigma Theta, Zeta Phi Beta, and Sigma Gamma Rho represent the National Pan-Hellenic Council while Alpha Delta Pi, Alpha Gamma Delta, Chi Omega, Kappa Delta, and Phi Mu make up the National Panhellenic Conference.

There are currently several fraternal organizations on campus: Alpha Tau Omega, Delta Chi, Lambda Chi Alpha, Tau Kappa Epsilon, FarmHouse, Pi Kappa Phi, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, and Sigma Chi. Alpha Phi Alpha, Kappa Alpha Psi, Omega Psi Phi, and Phi Beta Sigma make up the National Pan-Hellenic Council fraternities at Troy University. Troy is also home to a chapter of the Christian fraternity Gamma Phi Delta.

There are five Greek organizations that function under the supervision of the John M Long school of music: Phi Mu Alpha, Kappa Kappa Psi, Sigma Alpha Iota, Tau Beta Sigma, and Phi Boota roota.

Religious and Other Organizations

The university is home to numerous religious campus organizations such as the Wesley Foundation, Baptist Campus Ministries, Pentecostal Campus Ministries, the Newman Center (Roman Catholic), the Christian Student Center (Churches of Christ) and the Troy Secular Association, some of which have stand-alone physical facilities on the Troy campus.

The Tropolitan

The school newspaper, the Tropolitan (commonly referred to as "The Trop"), is located on the bottom floor of Wallace Hall. It is a weekly publication, written and produced entirely by students. The Palladium, is located in adjacent offices in the same building.

Also located in Wallace Hall is Troy University Television, also referred to as TrojanVision. Troy University Television is unique in that it broadcasts two live entirely student produced newscasts at noon and five o'clock daily, one of the few universities in the country to do so.

The "Sound of the South" Marching Band

Music is an integral part of Troy University. The university boasts 29 faculty in the School of Music, over 200 undergraduate music majors, and fields a variety of music ensembles including a Symphonic Band, two Concert Bands, two Jazz Bands, a Trumpet Ensemble, Pep Band, Brass Quintet, and more. The school of music also hosts a Brass Symposium every spring semester.

The Sound of the South plays halftime shows at all Troy home football games and many of the away games. The band is noted for traveling as much as the football team, some recent trips were University of Nebraska, University of Miami, University of Arkansas, Mississippi State University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, and Florida State University. The Sound has been featured at numerous bowl games, including the Peach Bowl, the Senior Bowl, the Blue-Gray Football Classic, the R+L Carriers New Orleans Bowl, and has also been featured in halftime performances for the Atlanta Falcons, Miami Dolphins, New Orleans Saints and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Over the past two years, the band has performed for over 450,000 fans. The band has recorded for the Warner Brothers Marching Band Promotional Compact Disc since 1998, which is distributed to over 38,000 bands. This is thanks in part to current director of bands Ralph Ford who has composed and arranged over 130 pieces of music for symphonic band, concert band, jazz band, and marching band. The Sound of the South performs regularly at Movie Gallery Stadium in Troy, Alabama.


Troy State Normal School began its sports program in 1909 when it fielded its first football team. Through the early years Troy's athletics nicknames were not official and varied by the sport and the coach. Eventually teams all began to use the name "Troy State Teachers," but when the athletic teams moved into NAIA competition the nickname was then was changed to the "Red Wave". In the early 1970s when the student body voted to change the name to Trojans after many felt that Red Wave was too similar to the University of Alabama's nickname, the Crimson Tide. Prior to becoming a member of NCAA Division One athletics in 1993, Troy University was a member of the Gulf South Conference of the NCAA Division II ranks. Troy's primary rivals were Jacksonville State University, Livingston University (now the University of West Alabama), and the University of North Alabama.

Confucius Institute

The Confucius Institute is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes. Its headquarters is in Beijing and is under the The Office of Chinese Language Council International or Hanban. The first Confucius Institute in the state of Alabama opened at Troy University in the fall of 2008.

Trojan Oaks Golf Course

Troy University maintains a 9-hole championship golf course on the campus for use by the general public, golf team, and students. Students are given a discount on Tuesday and Wednesday to encourage teenage and young adult participation in the sport.
The Trojan Oaks is 3,211 yards from the longest tee. The par for the course is 36 with a course rating is 35.5 and a slope rating of 125 . The course was built and opened in 1977 under the supervision of Chancellor Ralph Wyatt Adams. The greens and fairways are both Bermuda Grass.

Troy University Dothan Campus
Troy University - Montgomery Campus
Troy University - Phenix City Campus
Chinese Station at Troy University



Judson University is an evangelical Christian liberal arts university located in Elgin, Illinois. It was founded in 1963. Judson was formed out of the liberal arts component of Northern Baptist Theological Seminary. When the seminary moved from Chicago to Lombard, IL, it was decided to make the college separate from the seminary. Judson University was named after Adoniram Judson, the first American Baptist missionary to foreign shores. The College has campuses in Elgin and Rockford, Illinois, and a student body of approximately 1,100. Judson College became Judson University on August 28, 2008.


Judson University has about 50 majors available in the traditional undergraduate program, with the most popular being Architecture, followed by Education.

In the adult undergraduate program, an accelerated program consisting of night and weekend classes, there are about 5 majors offered.

Students who choose the Architecture major at Judson enter a 6 year program which includes four years to receive a Bachelor of Arts in Architectural Studies, a year long internship at an architecture firm, and then a Master of Architecture degree. In June 2005 Judson University began its Masters of Education Program.

Judson is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. The Master of Architecture degree is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). The Master of Education program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Judson has been ranked in the Top Tier of Midwest comprehensive colleges in U.S.News & World Report's "America's Best Colleges 2010."


Judson is a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA), and the Chicagoland Collegiate Athletic Conference (CCAC). Judson University offers the following sports:

* Baseball
* Men's Basketball
* Women's Basketball
* Men's Soccer
* Women's Soccer
* Softball
* Women's Volleyball
* Men's Cross Country
* Women's Cross Country
* Men's Golf
* Women's Golf
* Men's Tennis
* Women's Tennis
* Cheerleading

Judson also offers a variety of summer sports camps open to the community. The camps are designed to give students (through 12th grade) the opportunity to develop and enhance their skills in sports in a non-competitive environment. Summer camps offered at Judson include:

* Soccer Day Camps (Grades K-7)
* Soccer School of Excellence (Overnight; Grades 5-12)
* Basketball Day Camps (Grades 1-9)
* Girls' Volleyball Clinics (Grades 5-10)

Student Events/Activities

Judson Student Organization (JSO) plans and/or sponsors the majority of events and activities at Judson University. These events include:

* Homecoming
* Invisible Children
* The Office Party
* Singled Out
* "Rock Out" Competition
* Reel Conversations
* Small Groups
* Concerts
* Mr. Wilson
* Blue Crew
* Brown Bagging
* Missions Service Projects
* Spring Fling
* Senior Banquet
* Lip Sync
* JSO Week (Chapel)
* Call and Response
* Political Forum
* Off Stage Improv
* Variety Show
* Clifford Court Ministry
* Campus Prayer Events

JSO also recognizes other clubs formed on campus:

* International Justice Mission Chapter (IJM)
* Muu Kappa (Missionary Kids Chapter)
* Fellowship of Christian Athletes
* Juggernaut (Ultimate Frisbee)

Fox River Campus

Judson's 90+ acre campus is located on the banks of the Fox River, about 40 miles (64 km) west of Chicago. The university campus was purchased in 1963, when Dr. Benjamin Browne visited the original 19-acre (77,000 m2) country estate, known as Braeburn-on-the-Fox, and offered the owner $100,000.



Huntington University is a comprehensive liberal arts college located in Huntington, Indiana. Huntington University offers associate's, bachelor's and master's degrees in approximately 70 academic concentrations.

As a Christian university, Huntington is "committed to developing the whole person, assisting students to understand all areas of human knowledge from the perspective of a Christian worldview, and preparing them to impact their world for Christ."

Huntington is "not a refuge from the contemporary world, but an arena for encounter with that world and creative response to it." With the conviction that "all truth is God’s truth," the University educates its students "in the liberal arts and their chosen disciplines, always seeking to examine the relationship between the disciplines and God's revelation in Jesus Christ."

Huntington University has a strong historic and ongoing relationship with the Catholic Church, and a little bit of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, an evangelical denomination headquartered in Huntington, Indiana.

Formerly called "Central College" and "Huntington College," the institution adopted its current name with a ribbon-cutting ceremony and special chapel service on Thursday, September 1, 2005.

Undergraduate Programs

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching classifies Huntington University as a principally undergraduate institution. Huntington currently offers the bachelor's degree.

Graduate and Adult Programs

Huntington University's Graduate School offers the master's degree in counseling, education, and ministry.

In 2008, the Master of Arts in Counseling Ministry was replaced by a new graduate counseling program leading to state licensure.

The Master of Education degree is offered for teachers. Available concentrations include: M.Ed. in Elementary Curriculum and Instruction, M.Ed. in Elementary Reading, M.Ed. in Early Adolescent Education (middle school Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts), M.Ed. in Adolescent and Young Adult Education (high school Math, English, Social Studies, Biology, Chemistry).

A Master of Arts degree in Ministry Leadership is also available, along with a special pastoral leadership diploma program and continuing education for pastors.

A Master of Arts degree in Youth Ministry Leadership is offered through a combination of on-campus and distance-education courses.

EXCEL is Huntington University's accelerated degree program for adult students. Classes are offered in Huntington Columbia City, and Wabash, Indiana. Some classes are available online. EXCEL offers: Associate Degree in Christian Ministry, Associate Degree in Organizational Management, Bachelor's Degree in Accounting, Bachelor's Degree in Business Administration, Bachelor's Degree in Human Resource Management, and Bachelor's Degree in Not-for-Profit Leadership. Additional "Gateway" courses are offered for personal enrichment.


Huntington University Foresters compete in the Mid-Central Conference of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

Men's teams include baseball, basketball, cross country, golf, soccer, tennis, and track and field.

Women's teams include basketball, cross country, soccer, softball, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.


In 2004-2005, controversy ensued when Huntington dismissed John E. Sanders, professor of religion and philosophy, following constituent disputes over Sanders' views on open theism and inclusivism. Sanders was placed on a one-year full-salary sabbatical, at the end of which his contract was terminated. Some students and faculty protested under the banner of academic freedom.


* 1896 Cornerstone of original building laid by Milton Wright, bishop of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and father of aviation pioneers Orville and Wilbur Wright.
* 1897 With a prayer of dedication by Bishop Wright, the institution opened as "Central College."
* 1917 Name changed to "Huntington College."
* 1958 Alumnus J. Edward Roush elected to Congress
* 1961 Accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges & Schools
* 2005 Name changed to "Huntington University."

Campus points of interest

* Merillat Centre for the Arts
* Thornhill Nature Preserve
* Huntington University Arboretum and Botanical Garden
* Lake Sno-Tip
* The teepee in the middle of Lake Sno-Tip


Thursday, April 8, 2010


Universiti Putra Malaysia (English: Putra University, Malaysia), or UPM, is a leading research intensive public university located in central Peninsular Malaysia, close to the capital city, Kuala Lumpur. It was formerly known as Universiti Pertanian Malaysia or Agricultural University of Malaysia (Malay: universiti, university; pertanian, agriculture; Malaysia). UPM is a research university offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses with a research focus on agricultural sciences and its related fields. Ranked joint 364th best university in the world in 2007 by Quacquarelli Symonds, UPM is taking steps to boost its research capabilities both in and beyond the scope of agriculture.


One can trace the origins of UPM to the School of Agriculture officially instituted on 21 May, 1931 by John Scott, an administrative officer of the British colonial Straits Settlements. The School was located on a 22-acre spread in Serdang, Selangor state. The School began by offering the three-year Diploma program and a one-year Certificate course. By 1941 the School had succeeded in training 321 officers, with 155 having obtained the Diploma and 166 the Certificate. This school was, on 23 June, 1942, declared to be the College of Agriculture Malaya by Sir Edward Gent, the Governor of the Malayan Union. In 1948 it was proposed that this College be upgraded to a University. The proposal, however, was shelved with the declaration of the Malayan Emergency in the middle of that same year.

In 1960 the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of Malaya was established. On 1 January, 1962 a statute was approved to make the Council of the College of Agriculture Malaya an authority of the University of Malaya.

The formation of an agricultural university providing programs of study at the degree level was suggested by the then Honorable Deputy Prime Minister, Tun Haji Abdul Razak Hussein, on 31 March, 1969 at the opening ceremony of the additional wing to the College of Agriculture Malaya at Serdang, Selangor.

The establishment of Universiti Pertanian Malaysia finally culminated with the enacting of the Incorporation Order signed by His Majesty The Yang Di-Pertuan Agong as provided for under the Universities and University Colleges Act, 1971, and published in the Government Gazette as P.U.(A) 387 dated 29 October, 1971. The said Incorporation Order provides as follows :

"There shall be a higher educational institution having the status of University, which shall be a body corporate for the purpose of providing, promoting and developing higher education in the fields of Agriculture, Forestry, Veterinary Science, Natural Sciences, Engineering Sciences, Technology, Social Sciences, Humanities and Education as well as to provide for research and the accumulation and advancement of knowledge and the dissemination of such knowledge in the aforesaid fields of study."

The creation of this University was based on the merger of the College of Agriculture Malaya with the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Malaya. Dr. Mohd. Rashdan bin Haji Baba was appointed as the first Vice-Chancellor by virtue of the provisions of section 18 of the Universities and University Colleges Act, 1971.

Universiti Pertanian Malaysia embarked on its first academic session in July 1973 with three foundation faculties: the Faculty of Agriculture, the Faculty of Forestry, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science. Beside the three faculties there was a Basic Sciences Division. The pioneer student enrolment was 1,559 for the Bachelor's degere in Agriculture, Diploma in Home Technology, Diploma in Animal Health and Production, Diploma in Science with Education, and Preliminary Programme.

In the early eighties, however, UPM expanded its areas of concentration by including Science and Technology subjects in its fields of study. In 1994 UPM embarked on its ambitious plan to develop into a futuristic university. It would provide better and up-to-date skills and systems for science and technology education. To do so, it would take full advantage of the rapid development in information technology. UPM thereafter transformed itself into a borderless campus, its name and reputation stretching far beyond Malaysian boundaries.

The climax of the transformation came with the changing of the name from Universiti Pertanian Malaysia to Universiti Putra Malaysia, in honour of Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. The change was officially announced on 3 April 1997 by the then Prime Minister, Dato' Seri Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad. This was a strategic way of portraying the status of UPM as a center of higher education capable of providing various fields of study deemed necessary to facilitate national development in the new millennium. This was especially true of UPM's provisions for studies in Information Technology (ITUPM was renamed in honour of Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, Malaysia's first Prime Minister. The renaming was looked upon as a strategic move in preparing UPM to become a versatile higher learning institution aligned with Malaysia’s strategic plans in dynamic high-technology. It lies near the heart of the Multimedia Super Corridor, the first large-scale high-technology initiative of the Malaysian government, and near the new administrative capital, Putrajaya. The latter, too, was named after Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra


The university since its inception as Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, has had two branch campuses apart from the main campus at Serdang, Selangor. The UPM branch campuses were located in Bintulu, Sarawak and Mengabang Telipot, Terengganu. The campus in Terengganu, however, has been upgraded to the University College of Science and Technology Malaysia (KUSTEM), with its own management and administration. KUSTEM officially broke away from UPM on 1 July, 2001. The Medicine and Health Sciences faculty maintains a campus complex adjacent to a local hospital in Serdang.

Academic Profile

UPM began its academic life in 1973 with three founding Faculties and a Division of Basic Sciences. The first intake of 1,559 students were for the Bachelor's degree in Agriculture, Diploma in Home Technology, Diploma in Animal Health and Production, Diploma in Science with Education, and Preliminary Programme. Currently UPM offers 73 Bachelor's degree programmes, eight Diploma programmes, and 12 Masters and Doctoral programmes. There are 16 Faculties, eight Centres, six Institutes, two Schools, a University Park and a branch campus in Bintulu, Sarawak. The Doctor of Medicine program provided by the Medical and Health Science division of the university was fully recognized by the Malaysia Medical Council on June 5, 2001.

Faculty of Engineering

The Faculty of Engineering of Universiti Putra Malaysia was established on 1 January 1975 at the main Serdang Campus, some 22 kilometers to the south of Kuala Lumpur. It is one of the largest faculties at UPM with a student population of over 3000 owes as much to the excellence of its academic staff as to facilities and infrastructure that are being continuously made available. The campus’ location at the heart of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) provides the faculty with the excellent access to the array of IT and multimedia facilities available in the Corridor. With the UPMNET providing sophisticated campus-wide broadband ATM network, coupled with the computing facilities at the faculty, students and staff have ready access to the latest in IT, Multimedia, CAD/CAM and internet facilities. Above all, they can enjoy the placid and conducive working environment in the famous ‘green campus’ which aesthetically encapsulates UPM’s history as the nation’s first agriculture college.

The eight academic departments housed within the faculty offer a similar number of Bachelor of Engineering degree programmers. The faculty is proud of the international character of its student population. Out of 800 postgraduate’s population, almost fifty percent are international student. In additional to provide excellent facilities and opportunities for teaching and research, the faculty has established Research Centre to R&D on selected priority areas of engineering and its related fields.

Faculty of Engineering-brief history

1975 Faculty of Agricultural Engineering was established and offered one Bachelor of Engineering (Agriculture) program

1985 the faculty was changed to Faculty of Engineering and offered 4 Bachelor of Engineering Programs.

1996 the faculty was expanded to 8 Departments offering 8 Bachelor of Engineering programs

1999 Phase 1 of New Engineering Complex was completed.



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